Ethics[ edit ] Immanuel Kant introduced the categorical imperative:
The secular approach to conscience includes psychologicalphysiologicalsociologicalhumanitarianand authoritarian views. Charles Darwin considered that conscience evolved in humans to resolve conflicts between competing natural impulses-some about self-preservation but others about safety of a family or community; the claim of conscience to moral authority emerged from the "greater duration of impression of social instincts" in the struggle for survival.
Thus, nationalism is invoked in conscience to quell tribal conflict and the notion of a Brotherhood of Man is invoked to quell national conflicts. Yet such crowd drives may not only overwhelm but redefine individual conscience.
We evolved as tribal groups surrounded by enemies; thus conscience evolved a dual role; the duty to save and protect members of the in-groupand the duty to show hatred and aggression towards any out-group.
An interesting area of research in this context concerns the similarities between our relationships and those of animalswhether animals in human society petsworking animalseven animals grown for food or in the wild. He subsequently reinforced this idea through the lense of the gene-centered view of evolutionsince the unit of natural selection is neither an individual organism nor a group, but rather the "selfish" geneand these genes could ensure their own "selfish" survival by, inter alia, pushing individuals to act altruistically towards its kin.
Free willCompatibilism and incompatibilismDeterminismLibertarianism metaphysicsTheory of justificationVirtue ethicsMetaethicsMoral motivationand Normative ethics The word "conscience" derives etymologically from the Latin conscientia, meaning "privity of knowledge"  or "with-knowledge".
The English word implies internal awareness of a moral standard in the mind concerning the quality of one's motives, as well as a consciousness of our own actions. Conscience in this sense is not necessarily the product of a process of rational consideration of the moral features of a situation or the applicable normative principles, rules or laws and can arise from parental, peer group, religious, state or corporate indoctrinationwhich may or may not be presently consciously acceptable to the person "traditional conscience".
By debating test cases applying such understanding conscience was trained and refined i. Thomas Aquinas regarded conscience as the application of moral knowledge to a particular case S.
Thus, conscience was considered an act or judgment of practical reason that began with synderesisthe structured development of our innate remnant awareness of absolute good which he categorised as involving the five primary precepts proposed in his theory of Natural Law into an acquired habit of applying moral principles.
A quiet conscience can endure much, and remains joyful in all trouble, but an evil conscience is always fearful and uneasy. Benedict de Spinoza in his Ethicspublished after his death inargued that most people, even those that consider themselves to exercise free willmake moral decisions on the basis of imperfect sensory information, inadequate understanding of their mind and will, as well as emotions which are both outcomes of their contingent physical existence and forms of thought defective from being chiefly impelled by self-preservation.
By this the heart feels itself enlarged, as by egotism it is contracted. John Plamenatz in his critical examination of Rousseau 's work considered that conscience was there defined as the feeling that urges us, in spite of contrary passions, towards two harmonies: However, corrupted by power or wealth we may be, either as possessors of them or as victims, there is something in us serving to remind us that this corruption is against nature.
But, he thought, this was only true insofar as our conscience also required loyalty to "a mysterious higher or deeper self. It protests against a doing which imperils the unity of this being with itself.
One reason, she held, was that conscience, as we understand it in moral or legal matters, is supposedly always present within us, just like consciousness:Is murder right or wrong? [closed] I wanted to simply know a definitive answer of what is right and what is wrong really, my question is pretty much answered, But there are several exceptions - self-defence, war, the death penalty, for instance - in which the deliberate killing of a person is not illegal, and consequently is not murder.
Death penalty: is capital punishment morally justified? Death penalty: is capital punishment morally justified?
The second question is moral. Even if the death penalty deterred crime more. The death penalty, also known as capital punishment, is a legal process of punishment for crime.
The Church views capital punishment as wrong and not necessary. I believe that,like slavery, which was a law of the land, people should recognize redemption rather than punishment for folks who have aborted facilitated or allowed someone to go through abortion (or turn a blind eye to slavery).
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Greetings from Seneca to his friend Lucilius. CONTINUE to act thus, my dear Lucilius - set yourself free for your own sake; gather and save your time, which till lately has been forced from you, or filched away, or has merely slipped from your hands.