Essence is an annual summertime event that is held in New Orleans, Louisiana. What better place to have such a huge event, then in the Big Easy? It is said to be one of the largest music festival in the U. This was only my second time attending the festival, but for the second year in a row, I left the festival feeling motivated and inspired to set goals and dream big.
Although the terms "feminism" and "feminist" did not gain widespread use until the s, they were already being used in the public parlance much earlier; for instance, Katherine Hepburn speaks of the "feminist movement" in the film Woman of the Year.
According to Maggie Humm and Rebecca Walker, the history of feminism can be divided into three waves. The first feminist wave was in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the second was in the s and s, and the third extends from the s to the present.
Feminist theory emerged from these feminist movements. It is manifest in a variety of disciplines such as feminist geography, feminist history and feminist literary criticism. Feminism has altered predominant perspectives in a wide range of areas within Western society, ranging from culture to law.
During much of its history, most feminist movements and theories had leaders who were predominantly middle-class white women from Western Europe and North America.
Since that time, women in former European colonies and the Third World have proposed "Post-colonial" and "Third World" feminisms. Some Postcolonial Feminists, such as Chandra Talpade Mohanty, are critical of Western feminism for being ethnocentric.
Black feminists, such as Angela Davis and Alice Walker, share this view. The third wave refers to a continuation of, and a reaction to the perceived failures of, second-wave feminism, beginning in the s.
First wave First-wave feminism refers to an extended period of feminist activity during the nineteenth century and early twentieth century in the United Kingdom and the United States.
Originally it focused on the promotion of equal contract and property rights for women and the opposition to chattel marriage and ownership of married women and their children by their husbands. InFlorence Nightingale established female nurses as adjuncts to the military. In the Representation of the People Act was passed granting the vote to women over the age of 30 who owned houses.
In this was extended to all women over twenty-one. American first-wave feminism involved a wide range of women. Others, such as Matilda Joslyn Gage, were more radical, and expressed themselves within the National Woman Suffrage Association or individually. American first-wave feminism is considered to have ended with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitutiongranting women the right to vote in all states.
The term first wave was coined retrospectively after the term second-wave feminism began to be used to describe a newer feminist movement that focused as much on fighting social and cultural inequalities as political inequalities.
Second wave Second-wave feminism refers to the period of activity in the early s and lasting through the late s. The scholar Imelda Whelehan suggests that the second wave was a continuation of the earlier phase of feminism involving the suffragettes in the UK and USA.
Second-wave feminism has continued to exist since that time and coexists with what is termed third-wave feminism. The scholar Estelle Freedman compares first and second-wave feminism saying that the first wave focused on rights such as suffrage, whereas the second wave was largely concerned with other issues of equality, such as ending discrimination.
The feminist activist and author Carol Hanisch coined the slogan "The Personal is Political" which became synonymous with the second wave. Simone de Beauvoir and The Second Sex The French author and philosopher Simone de Beauvoir wrote novels; monographs on philosophy, politics, and social issues; essays; biographies; and an autobiography.
Written inits English translation was published in It sets out a feminist existentialism which prescribes a moral revolution. She argues women have historically been considered deviant and abnormal and contends that even Mary Wollstonecraft considered men to be the ideal toward which women should aspire.
De Beauvoir argues that for feminism to move forward, this attitude must be set aside. Such a system causes women to completely lose their identity in that of their family.
Friedan specifically locates this system among post-World War II middle-class suburban communities. Bra-burning also became associated with the movement, though the actual prevalence of bra-burning is debatable.
Third wave Third-wave feminism began in the early s, arising as a response to perceived failures of the second wave and also as a response to the backlash against initiatives and movements created by the second wave.
The third wave has its origins in the mids. Feminist leaders rooted in the second wave like Gloria Anzaldua, bell hooks, Chela Sandoval, Cherrie Moraga, Audre Lorde, Maxine Hong Kingston, and many other black feminists, sought to negotiate a space within feminist thought for consideration of race-related subjectivities.
Third-wave feminism also contains internal debates between difference feminists such as the psychologist Carol Gilligan who believes that there are important differences between the sexes and those who believe that there are no inherent differences between the sexes and contend that gender roles are due to social conditioning.
Post-feminism Post-feminism describes a range of viewpoints reacting to feminism.
While not being "anti-feminist," post-feminists believe that women have achieved second wave goals while being critical of third wave feminist goals. The term was first used in the s to describe a backlash against second-wave feminism. Amelia Jones wrote that the post-feminist texts which emerged in the s and s portrayed second-wave feminism as a monolithic entity and criticized it using generalizations.
This article was based on a number of interviews with women who largely agreed with the goals of feminism, but did not identify as feminists. Some contemporary feminists, such as Katha Pollitt or Nadine Strossen, consider feminism to hold simply that "women are people".Essence is more than a festival; it's a celebration of African American music, culture, beauty, and history.
For the 20th year in a row, Essence has done a superb job at not only entertaining its attendees, but empowering them also. Empowerment is certainly not a new idea within the business arena.
In fact, its concept has been around since the. 's when American car manufactures suddenly realized that they were. Since the utopian result of empowerment is the transference 'of decisionmaking and ownership to those individuals [at the lowest possible levels] whohave the knowledge and ability to make the most appropriate decision, ' theseindividuals are, therefore, most familiar with their end of the value chain.
The Essence of Empowerment Empowerment is certainly not a new idea within the business arena. In fact, its concept has been around since the 's when American car manufactures suddenly realized that they were losing their butts to the Japanese producers/5(1).
It has been over twenty years since both Styles and Hall maintained that power is central to nursing’s development as a profession The concept of empowerment emerged in the late s and early s as a result of the self-help and political awareness However evidence of the essence of structural empowerment, if not the name, appears.
- EMPOWERMENT Empowerment is a word that many people know, but not a skill that very many people have been able to master. Since the dawn of time empowerment has been taking place.
Empowerment is more prevalent than you may think.