Blog Pure Food and Drug Act: The purpose was to protect the public against adulteration of food and from products identified as healthful without scientific support.
Department of Agriculture which was renamed the U.
Although the law drew upon many precedents, provisions, and legal experiments pioneered in individual states, the federal law defined "misbranding" and "adulteration" for the first time and prescribed penalties for each.
The law recognized the U. Pharmacopeia and the National Formulary as standards authorities for drugs, but made no similar provision for federal food standards.
The law also established a federal cadre of food and drug inspectors that one Southern opponent of the legislation criticized as "a Trojan horse with a bellyful of inspectors and other employees. Goods found in violation of various areas of the law were subject to seizure and destruction at the expense of the manufacturer.
That, combined with a legal requirement that all convictions be published as Notices of Judgment, proved to be important tools in the enforcement of the statute and had a deterrent effect upon would-be violators.
This act, along with its numerous amendments, remains the statutory basis for federal regulation of all foods, drugs, biological products, cosmetics, medical devices, tobacco, and radiation-emitting devices by the U.
Food and Drug Administration. History of passage[ edit ] It took 27 years to the statute, during which time the public was made aware of many problems with foods and drugs in the U. Muckraking journalists, such as Samuel Hopkins Adamstargeted the patent medicine industry with its high-alcoholic content patent medicines, soothing syrups for infants with opium derivatives, and "red clauses" in newspaper contracts providing that patent medicine ads upon which most newspapers of the time were dependent would be withdrawn if the paper expressed support for food and drug regulatory legislation.
The goal of the table trial was to study the human effects of common preservatives used in foods during a period of rapid changes in the food supply brought about by the need to feed cities and support an industrializing nation increasingly dependent on immigrant labor. Wiley recruited young men to eat all their meals at a common table as he added increased "doses" of preservatives including borax, benzoate, formaldehyde, sulfites, and salicylates.
The men soon adopted the motto "Only the Brave dare eat the fare" and at times the publicity given to the trials became a burden.
Though many results of the trial came to be in dispute, there was no doubt that formaldehyde was dangerous and it disappeared quickly as a preservative. Wiley himself felt that he had found adverse effects from large doses of each of the preservatives and the public seemed to agree with Wiley.
In many cases, most particularly with ketchup and other condiments, the use of preservatives was often used to disguise insanitary production practices. Although the law itself did not proscribe the use of some of these preservatives, consumers increasingly turned away from many products with known preservatives.
The statute regulated food and drugs moving in interstate commerce and forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of poisonous patent medicines. Wileyand President Theodore Roosevelt.
Enforcement of labeling and future ramifications[ edit ] The Pure Food and Drug Act was initially concerned with ensuring products were labeled correctly. Later efforts were made to outlaw certain products that were not safe, followed by efforts to outlaw products which were safe but not effective.
For example, there was an attempt to outlaw Coca-Cola in because of its excessive caffeine content; caffeine had replaced cocaine as the active ingredient in Coca-Cola in Forty Barrels and Twenty Kegs of Coca-Colathe judge found that Coca-Cola had a right to use caffeine as it saw fit, although Coca-Cola eventually lost when the government appealed to the Supreme Court.
In addition to caffeine, the Pure Food and Drug Act required that drugs such as alcoholcocaineheroinmorphineand cannabisbe accurately labeled with contents and dosage. Previously many drugs had been sold as patent medicines with secret ingredients or misleading labels.
Cocaine, heroin, cannabis, and other such drugs continued to be legally available without prescription as long as they were labeled.
Gray as a successful model for re-legalization of currently prohibited drugs by requiring accurate labels, monitoring of purity and dose, and consumer education.On this date, the Pure Food and Drug Act of (PL ) passed in the U.S.
House of Representatives, to Muckraking journalists had long reported on the appallingly unsanitary conditions of the country’s manufacturing plants, especially those in Chicago’s meat-packing industry. Once the Pure Food and Drug Act passed on June 30, , the nation finally achieved some form of federal regulation on food and drug products.
It banned the commerce of any adulterated or misbranded food, drink, or drug and prohibited the manufacturer from misrepresenting the ingredients of the product.
Chapter 7 The Pure -Food and Drug Act of A major step forward in the control of opiate addiction was taken in when Congress passed the first Pure Food and Drug Act despite opposition from the patent-medicine interests.
Enforcement of the Pure Food and Drug Act was assigned to the Bureau of Chemistry in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, which in was renamed the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Patent Medicines with Addictive Substances Necessitated Food and Drug Act Posted in Drug Law News by datreatment When many people think of patent medicines, they conjure up images of wagons going town to town with sales agents promoting “cure alls,” or of the days of the old west when these drugs gained large-scale popularity.
The Pure Food and Drug Act of is cited by drug policy reform advocates such as James P. Gray as a successful model for re-legalization of currently prohibited drugs by requiring accurate labels, monitoring of purity and dose, and consumer education.