Grammar The grammar of French is historically based on the grammar of Latin. As a result, it shares many features with other Romance languages. Nouns, adjectives, articles, and pronouns French nouns have the following grammatical categories:
Dictionaries are more responsive to usage in the matter of pronunciation than they are in spelling. It is claimed that in the 19th century the Merriam-Webster dictionaries foisted a New England pronunciation on the United States, but by the midth century many regional variations… The act of pronunciation The production of speech is basically the same as the production of any other soundwith an apparatus for setting up vibrations in the air which affect the organs of perception in the ear of the hearer.
The sound of speech differs from the sound of a noise- or music-producing instrument because the organs of speech can change the quality of the sound produced as well as alter its pitch, loudness, and duration. It is as though speech were played on a number of instruments, one for ah, another for sh, etc.
The term pronunciation is usually restricted to differentiation in the qualities of the speech sounds and in stresses and tones where pertinent. Voice quality, such as nasality or breathy voiceis not included unless it is a differentiating feature of the sounds of the language.
The term is only vaguely applied to stretches of speech longer than a word, such as the intonation of sentences, and it may be said that someone has an excellent pronunciation but poor intonation.
Created and produced by QA International. For languages like English, the consonant articulations are comparatively neat and stable, the vowel articulations less so.
For other languages, such as Spanish, it is the other way around. For some languages the general pattern of articulation is comparatively precise, for others not so. The pronunciation of English cannot be made better, but only obnoxiously conspicuousby a precision of articulation which is contrary to the essence of the language.
The system and the pronunciation The systematic function of pronunciation is to make those distinctions among the consonants and vowels in the flow of speech, and, for some languages, among quantities, stresses, and pitches, which have to be made in order to distinguish meanings in sentences.
The simplest illustration shows one critical point only in the sentence: For the pronunciation to satisfy the ear of the native speaker, however, the way in which the distinctions are made the qualities of the consonants and vowels and the way in which they are run into the flow of speech is fully as important as the fact that the distinctions called for are made.
In the terminology of linguisticsthe systematic function is said to be phonemic and the qualitative propriety phonetic.
For all examples above the phonemic statement is very simple: It is general practicealthough not strictly phonemic, to group phonemes into phonetic-named classes or identify them as intersections of classes.
The description of the phones, or speech sounds as sounds, is another matter. These [t]s phones rather than phonemes are voiceless except that in some varieties of English the [t] in this environment is voiced. In German it is aspirated, in French and Spanish not.
The [d]s are stops except that the Spanish phone is a fricative. Both are strictly alveolar in standard English, dental with the tongue touching the edges of the incisors in Spanish, and differently intermediate for German and French.
There are other small differences in articulation in this environment and still others in other environments. It is possible to describe phonetically dozens of varieties of [t] for General American English; some of them may be achieved only by straining the apparatus of description, but for most of them any different articulation will produce a pronunciation not quite right.
Language systems The pronunciations of various languages may be compared in a general way by noting the inventory of phonemes by classes. Other languages have as few as two stops Hawaiian to as many as six Yumawith none to three affricates. Some languages have uvulars or pharyngals. Chinese has an aspirated-unaspirated system for stops, Hindi four kinds of stops.
The English and German nasal systems correspond to the simple stops, while other languages have between zero and four nasals.
The l and r types are not contrasted in Japanese and furnish two phonemes each in Castilian Spanish. Russian has a double system of plain and palatalized consonants, Italian a complete system of geminates.
Tagalog has three vowels. The American English system is variously interpreted as 9 simple vowels plus complex vocalic nuclei or as about 15 vowels plus diphthongs. German and French have front-rounded and French has nasalized vowels, as English and Spanish do not.
Some languages have long vowels contrasting with short, as Middle English did. There are also systems which include types not used in English and the nearby languages. Burmese has vowels with breathy voice in contrast to not breathy. Igbo has inspired voiced stops.A single vowel is usually long when followed by one consonant and another vowel (somewhat like English 'silent E') and a single vowel at the end of a word (except E) is also long.
It’s five answers to five questions. Here we go 1. I don’t speak French but my job requires it. A few months ago I applied for a job with a large multinational which required French language skills.
Since Lauren is learning Russian and had started with the Cyrillic alphabet first, we can see how important this is to begin on so that you can boost the rest of your progress. French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] () or la langue française French pronunciation: [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language of the Indo-European tranceformingnlp.com descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance tranceformingnlp.com has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul.
This page contains a course in the Chinese Alphabet, pronunciation and sound of each letter as well as a list of other lessons in grammar topics and common expressions in Chinese also called Mandarin.
The Latin alphabet was a natural choice for the scribes who started writing French texts starting in the 11th century, even though it was less than an ideal fit for a language whose sound system differed substantially from that of Latin.