Share on Facebook Society has come to a point where the idea of living without cell phones seems ludicrous. Students desire cell phones in order to sustain contact with friends.
How common is brain cancer? Has the incidence of brain cancer changed over time? Why is there concern that cell phones may cause cancer or other health problems? Cell phones emit radiofrequency energy radio waves Effects of using cell phone, a form of non-ionizing radiation, from their antennas.
Tissues nearest to the antenna can absorb this energy. As of Decemberthere were more than This is a nearly threefold increase from the million users in Globally, the number of subscriptions is estimated by the International Telecommunications Union to be 5 billion.
However, improvements in cell phone technology have resulted in devices that have lower power outputs than earlier models. The NCI fact sheet Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer includes information on wireless local area networks commonly known as Wi-Ficell phone base stations, and cordless telephones.
What is radiofrequency energy and how does it affect the body? Radiofrequency energy is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation can be categorized into two types: Electromagnetic radiation is defined according to its wavelength and frequency, which is the number of cycles of a wave that pass a reference point per second.
Electromagnetic frequencies are described in units called hertz Hz. The energy of electromagnetic radiation is determined by its frequency; ionizing radiation is high frequency, and therefore high energy, whereas non-ionizing radiation is low frequency, and therefore low energy.
More information about ionizing radiation can be found on the Radiation page. The frequency of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation ranges from 30 kilohertz 30 kHz, or 30, Hz to gigahertz GHz, or billion Hz.
The human body absorbs energy from devices that emit radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. The dose of the absorbed energy is estimated using a measure called the specific absorption rate SARwhich is expressed in watts per kilogram of body weight. Exposure to ionizing radiation, such as from x-rays, is known to increase the risk of cancer.
The only consistently recognized biological effect of radiofrequency energy is heating. The ability of microwave ovens to heat food is one example of this effect of radiofrequency energy. However, it is not sufficient to measurably increase body temperature, and there are no other clearly established effects on the body from radiofrequency energy.
Whereas one study showed increased glucose metabolism in the region of the brain close to the antenna compared with tissues on the opposite side of the brain 2the other study 3 found reduced glucose metabolism on the side of the brain where the phone was used.
The authors of these studies noted that the results are preliminary and that possible health outcomes from changes in glucose metabolism are still unknown. Such inconsistent findings are not uncommon in experimental studies of the biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation 5.
Some contributing factors include assumptions used to estimate doses, failure to consider temperature effects, and lack of blinding of investigators to exposure status.
How is radiofrequency energy exposure measured in epidemiologic studies? Direct measurements are not yet possible outside of a laboratory setting. Estimates take into account the following: Radiofrequency energy, unlike ionizing radiationdoes not cause DNA damage that can lead to cancer.
Its only consistently observed biological effect in humans is tissue heating. In animal studies, it has not been found to cause cancer or to enhance the cancer-causing effects of known chemical carcinogens 6 — 8. This investigation was conducted in highly specialized labs that can specify and control sources of radiation and measure their effects.Cellular (cell) phones first became widely available in the United States in the s, but their use has increased dramatically since then.
Along with the large and still growing number of cell phone users (both adults and children), the amount of time people spend . Mobile phones are quite useful in studies and business.
In both fields, the mobile phone has become like compulsory gadget. Students can access Internet on their mobile phones while on the go, and thus can get knowledge of any topic they wish to.
Public concerns about the possible health effects of mobile phone usage receive a lot of attention. With so many people using cell phones, it’s easy to see why. 7 Ways Cell Phones are Destroying Your Business Productivity.
The cell phone turns 40 years old this month. Are we less productive because of it? April 15, The cell phone turned 40 years old this month. If a small business tries to forbid the use of phones, a. Fixed Effects Regression Methods for Longitudinal Data Using SAS, written by Paul Allison, is an invaluable resource for all researchers interested in adding fixed effects regression methods to their tool kit of statistical techniques.
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