References and Further Reading 1. In the beginning epiphenomenalism was known as the doctrine of "automatism" or as the "conscious automaton theory. Accordingly, epiphenomenalism in the philosophy of mind holds that our actions have purely physical causes neurophysiological changes in the brain, saywhile our intention, desire or volition to act does not cause our actions but is itself caused by the physical causes of our actions.
Cognitive scientists often say that the mind is the software of the brain. This chapter is about what this claim means. The last part of the section will discuss the relation between the mental and the biological.
This approach has been popular among thinkers who fear that acknowledging mental states that do not reduce to behavior would make psychology unscientific, because unreduced mental states are not intersubjectively accessible in the manner of the entities of the hard sciences.
Behaviorists don't define the mental in terms of just plain behavior, since after all something can be intelligent even if it has never had the chance to exhibit its intelligence. Behaviorists define the mental not in terms of behavior, but rather behavioral dispositions, the tendency to emit certain behaviors given certain stimuli.
It is important that the stimuli and the behavior be specified non-mentalistically.
Thus, intelligence could not be defined in terms of the disposition to give sensible responses to questions, since that would be to define a mental notion in terms of another mental notion indeed, a closely related one.
To see the difficulty of behavioristic analyses, one has to appreciate how mentalistic our ordinary behavioral descriptions are. Consider, for example, throwing. A series of motions that constitute throwing if produced by one mental cause might be a dance to get the ants off if produced by another.
An especially influential behaviorist definition of intelligence was put forward by A.
Turing, one of the mathematicians who cracked the German code during World War II, formulated the idea of the universal Turing machine, which contains, in mathematical form, the essence of the programmable digital computer.
Turing wanted to define intelligence in a way that applied to both men and machines, and indeed, to anything that is intelligent. His version of behaviorism formulates the issue of whether machines could think or be intelligent in terms of whether they could pass the following test: Let's say an hour.
The computer is intelligent if and only if the judge cannot tell the difference between the computer and the person. Turing's definition finessed the difficult problem of specifying non-mentalistically the behavioral dispositions that are characteristic of intelligence by bringing in the discrimination behavior of a human judge.
And the definition generalizes. Anything is intelligent just in case it can pass the Turing test. Turing suggested that we replace the concept of intelligence with the concept of passing the Turing test.
But what is the replacement for? If the purpose of the replacement is practical, the Turing test is not enormously useful. If one wants to know if a machine does well at playing chess or diagnosing pneumonia or planning football strategy, it is better to see how the machine performs in action than to make it take a Turing test.
For one thing, what we care about is that it do well at detecting pneumonia, not that it do it in a way indistinguishable from the way a person would do it. So if it does the job, who cares if it doesn't pass the Turing test?"Causal Argument" Essays and Research Papers Causal Argument [pic] PCR Critical Thinking All Foundation ONLINE NOTES Topic 3: Argumentation • Argument is a .
An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse".
It is difficult to define the genre into which essays . The Mind as the Software of the Brain. Ned Block New York University. 1. Machine Intelligence.
2. Intelligence and Intentionality. 3.
Functionalism and the Language of Thought. 4. Searle's Chinese Room Argument. Causal arguments focus on discussing the cause of a specific event or situation, such as a doctor explaining why smoking is the likely cause of a patient's lung cancer.
A causal argument can also be referred to as a cause and effect argument. Immanuel Kant (–) is the central figure in modern philosophy. He synthesized early modern rationalism and empiricism, set the terms for much of nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy, and continues to exercise a significant influence today in metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, and other fields.
In the case of a causal analysis essay, your thesis statement will need to include the exact causes and effects you are examining and why. Introduction. All essays begin with an introduction, a paragraph or two that allows you to set up the situation.